MSAA STATES
Instructional Strategies In-Depth
1. Systematic Instruction: Teaching focused on specific, measurable responses that may either be discrete or a chained task, and that are established through the use of defined methods of prompting and feedback based on the principles and research of ABA.
2. Time Delay: There are two types of time delay, constant time delay and progressive time delay. This Instructional Resource Guide focuses on Constant Time Delay; however, it does provide a brief explanation of Progressive Time Delay.
3. Additional Prompting Strategies: There are additional prompting strategies that are not covered in this instructional resource guide that may be helpful when teaching your students. These strategies were not included because they are not used in the MASSIs or LASSIs. These include, but are not limited to most to least prompting, simultaneous prompting, and graduated guidance.
4. Additional Resources: This brief guide is meant for quick reference. The following are teacher-friendly resources for educators who would like to learn more about these procedures.
5. Finding a Response Mode: It is important to identify the best way for your student to show what they know in each lesson.
6. Point to the Correct Response When Given and Array: The number of options in the array may vary depending on the student's current skills. An array of 4 is often used with one correct answer, at least one plausible incorrect answer, and two other distractors. Be sure to vary the location of the correct answer in the array. This array can be placed on the students' communication system.
7. Pull-off: Some students have difficulty pointing but may be able to make a selection when the responses are attached to a page. The array of 4 options is used, but the student pulls the correct response.
8. Eye gaze: Students who do not have the motor skills to point, but have vision, may be able to indicate the response by looking at the correct option. The array can be attached to each corner of a piece of see-through plexiglass (available from most hardware stores). By looking through the plexiglass, the teacher can see where the student focuses his or her eyes to indicate the answer.
9. Say or Type: Some students can verbalize the correct answer. This answer may be given after viewing an array of options or by generating the answer when asked a question. Other students may be able to generate the answer by typing a response. Saying or typing the answer provides students with the most flexibility to describe what they know.
10. Show: Some learning can be demonstrating through showing the answer. The student may be able to indicate the area of the rectangle by moving his or her hand across the shape. Or, a student may answer a comprehension question by pantomiming the answer.
11. Write or Type on Computer: Sometimes the student may be able to write the answer, for example, by writing the correct number in an equation or writing the name of the main character in a story.
12. Use Material from the Lesson: Students may be able to show the correct math answer by using a number card or plastic numbers or with other manipulatives. Similarly, in language arts, the student may use a picture on the page in the book or prop that is used with a story to answer a comprehension question. Remember: the response mode needs to be something students can do without assistance once they learn the material.
13. Constant Time Delay (CTD): CTD is a form of errorless learning that can be used with discrete responses (e.g., number ID; vocabulary words, matching). If a student makes a lot of errors through guessing, it may take longer to learn the response. CTD teaches the student to WAIT for help if unsure of the correct answer, but ANTICIPATE (answer before the prompt) when sure. First, use a zero delay round to introduce the skill. Give the cue to respond and prompt together to ensure correct responding. The student can only make an error if he or she does not imitate this response (if this happens, a better prompt may be needed or the student may need to be reminded to attend closely). After a few trials (or sessions), wait a few seconds before giving the prompt to allow the student to anticipate the correct answer.
- Prompting
- Feedback
- Format of Instruction
- Task Analysis
- Repeated Trial
2. Time Delay: There are two types of time delay, constant time delay and progressive time delay. This Instructional Resource Guide focuses on Constant Time Delay; however, it does provide a brief explanation of Progressive Time Delay.
3. Additional Prompting Strategies: There are additional prompting strategies that are not covered in this instructional resource guide that may be helpful when teaching your students. These strategies were not included because they are not used in the MASSIs or LASSIs. These include, but are not limited to most to least prompting, simultaneous prompting, and graduated guidance.
4. Additional Resources: This brief guide is meant for quick reference. The following are teacher-friendly resources for educators who would like to learn more about these procedures.
- Collins, B. (2012). Systematic instruction for students with moderate and severe disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
- Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. (2012). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. 9th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
5. Finding a Response Mode: It is important to identify the best way for your student to show what they know in each lesson.
6. Point to the Correct Response When Given and Array: The number of options in the array may vary depending on the student's current skills. An array of 4 is often used with one correct answer, at least one plausible incorrect answer, and two other distractors. Be sure to vary the location of the correct answer in the array. This array can be placed on the students' communication system.
7. Pull-off: Some students have difficulty pointing but may be able to make a selection when the responses are attached to a page. The array of 4 options is used, but the student pulls the correct response.
8. Eye gaze: Students who do not have the motor skills to point, but have vision, may be able to indicate the response by looking at the correct option. The array can be attached to each corner of a piece of see-through plexiglass (available from most hardware stores). By looking through the plexiglass, the teacher can see where the student focuses his or her eyes to indicate the answer.
9. Say or Type: Some students can verbalize the correct answer. This answer may be given after viewing an array of options or by generating the answer when asked a question. Other students may be able to generate the answer by typing a response. Saying or typing the answer provides students with the most flexibility to describe what they know.
10. Show: Some learning can be demonstrating through showing the answer. The student may be able to indicate the area of the rectangle by moving his or her hand across the shape. Or, a student may answer a comprehension question by pantomiming the answer.
11. Write or Type on Computer: Sometimes the student may be able to write the answer, for example, by writing the correct number in an equation or writing the name of the main character in a story.
12. Use Material from the Lesson: Students may be able to show the correct math answer by using a number card or plastic numbers or with other manipulatives. Similarly, in language arts, the student may use a picture on the page in the book or prop that is used with a story to answer a comprehension question. Remember: the response mode needs to be something students can do without assistance once they learn the material.
13. Constant Time Delay (CTD): CTD is a form of errorless learning that can be used with discrete responses (e.g., number ID; vocabulary words, matching). If a student makes a lot of errors through guessing, it may take longer to learn the response. CTD teaches the student to WAIT for help if unsure of the correct answer, but ANTICIPATE (answer before the prompt) when sure. First, use a zero delay round to introduce the skill. Give the cue to respond and prompt together to ensure correct responding. The student can only make an error if he or she does not imitate this response (if this happens, a better prompt may be needed or the student may need to be reminded to attend closely). After a few trials (or sessions), wait a few seconds before giving the prompt to allow the student to anticipate the correct answer.
- Zero Delay Round: Provide the task direction and immediately give the controlling prompt to teach the child the correct response. Reinforce the child's correct response. For example (number identification): Teacher says "Find three" while pointing to the number 3. Student responds by pointing to the number 3. Teacher reinforces the correct response by saying, "Good, that is three," and records the data (prompted correct).
- Time Delay Round: After several trials/sessions at zero delay, move to a 3-5 second delay (pick a delay time that is appropriate for your student to start responding, but do not vary that delay length). The task direction is given (target stimulus); wait 3-5 seconds delay time for the student to respond. If no response after delay, then the controlling prompt is used. After the student gives the correct response offer praise. Record Data (prompted correct: P). If an incorrect response is given, provide error correction procedures (usually the controlling prompt to prompt a correct response) and remind the student to wait if not sure. If multiple errors occur, return to the zero delay condition.
- IF the student points to the wrong answer, teacher immediately points to the correct answer, does not reinforce and records the data (error: "-")
- IF the student waits and does nothing, after 4 seconds the teacher points to the 3. After the student points to the 3, teacher records data (prompted correct: "P").
- IF the student independently points to 3, reinforce the correct response by saying "Good, that is three" and record the data (independent correct: "+").
- Teacher says "Find three" and waits 4 seconds (allowing the student to have a chance to answer).
3. Sample Script for CTD (Teaching Expressive Symbol Identification)
4. Sample Script for CTD (Teaching Receptive Word Identification)
14. Some Tips for Using Time Delay: What do I do if my student keeps guessing/ making errors? Progressive Time Delay. If students begin to make errors whenever the teacher delays the prompt, it may be better to use Progressive Time Delay (PTD). In this approach, the prompt is delayed by a very small increment of time (e.g., 2 seconds). Then the delay is gradually and systematically lengthened, allowing the student more time to respond independently.
15. System of Least Prompts (Least Intrusive Prompting (LIP) or Least to Most Prompting): Can be used with a task analysis or a chain of behaviors (e.g., entering a multistep equation into a calculator) or a discrete task (e.g., identifying numbers). A hierarchy of prompts (with a time delay between each prompt) is used on each step of the task analysis (e.g., verbal, gesture/model, physical) until the student makes the targeted response.
16. Guidelines for Using System of Least Prompts:
1. Select 3 – 4 prompts in the hierarchy (e.g., verbal, gesture/model, physical). Remember these prompts can be adapted for students with a range of sensory impairments. Always give the student an opportunity to make the correct response before providing any prompting on each step of the task analysis.
2. Provide the task direction/natural cue (e.g., "Use your calculator to solve the equation "; "What was the dog's name?")
3. Always give the student an opportunity to make the correct response before providing any prompting on each step of the task analysis.
4. Use the least intrusive prompt first and progress to more intrusive prompts until the learner responds correctly (usually 3 to 5 second delay between prompts).
5. If the student makes an error, immediately provide the most intrusive prompt to ensure the student makes a correct response. For literal text recall, if the student makes an error, immediately move on to the next prompt in the hierarchy (see diagram on pg. 18).
6. Encourage and praise the student after independent, correct responses.
17. Examples of Prompting Hierarchies:
- 0 seconds, 1 second, 2 seconds, 3 seconds
- 0 second, 2 seconds, 4 seconds, 6 seconds
15. System of Least Prompts (Least Intrusive Prompting (LIP) or Least to Most Prompting): Can be used with a task analysis or a chain of behaviors (e.g., entering a multistep equation into a calculator) or a discrete task (e.g., identifying numbers). A hierarchy of prompts (with a time delay between each prompt) is used on each step of the task analysis (e.g., verbal, gesture/model, physical) until the student makes the targeted response.
16. Guidelines for Using System of Least Prompts:
1. Select 3 – 4 prompts in the hierarchy (e.g., verbal, gesture/model, physical). Remember these prompts can be adapted for students with a range of sensory impairments. Always give the student an opportunity to make the correct response before providing any prompting on each step of the task analysis.
2. Provide the task direction/natural cue (e.g., "Use your calculator to solve the equation "; "What was the dog's name?")
3. Always give the student an opportunity to make the correct response before providing any prompting on each step of the task analysis.
4. Use the least intrusive prompt first and progress to more intrusive prompts until the learner responds correctly (usually 3 to 5 second delay between prompts).
5. If the student makes an error, immediately provide the most intrusive prompt to ensure the student makes a correct response. For literal text recall, if the student makes an error, immediately move on to the next prompt in the hierarchy (see diagram on pg. 18).
6. Encourage and praise the student after independent, correct responses.
17. Examples of Prompting Hierarchies:
18. Sample Scrip for System of Least Prompts (Calculator Use):
19. Model, Lead, Test: Model, lead, test is also known as "I do," "we do," "you do." It is a form of scaffolding that begins with teacher modeling and guidance to support student learning. As the student progresses, the teacher should provide less support and helps students gain independence with the skill or task. This can be especially helpful when teaching students academic skills with multiple steps, such as using the Pythagorean Theorem or completing a graphic organizer.
Steps to Using Model, Lead, Test
1. First (Model or "I do"), the teacher models the skill/task/strategy while students watch.
2. Next (Lead or "we do"), the teacher leads the students to use the skill/task/strategy simultaneously with the teacher.
3. Last (Test or "you do"), the teacher has the students complete the skill/task/strategy independently and observes to see if they responded correctly.
Guidelines for Using Model, Lead, Test
Student(s) must respond with a predetermined level of accuracy during the test phase to consider the skill mastered prior to moving on; for example, 80% accuracy for 2 consecutive sessions.
If students make an error, a correction is provided in the form of modeling the correct response, then having the student correctly perform the step.
Model, Lead, Test is not appropriate for students who are not able to observe someone perform an action and attempt to imitate that action (e.g., students without imitation skills).
You can easily test this by observing the student performing a few behaviors/movements (e.g., raising their hand, clapping their hands, and folding their hands). The point of this step is to ensure the student is physically capable of performing the behavior.
Then, secure the student's attention and say "do this" while completing the action (e.g., clap your hands). Do NOT say "clap your hands."
If the student attempts to imitate the action (e.g., claps their hands) then model, lead, test may be appropriate teaching strategy for that student.
Steps to Using Model, Lead, Test
1. First (Model or "I do"), the teacher models the skill/task/strategy while students watch.
2. Next (Lead or "we do"), the teacher leads the students to use the skill/task/strategy simultaneously with the teacher.
3. Last (Test or "you do"), the teacher has the students complete the skill/task/strategy independently and observes to see if they responded correctly.
Guidelines for Using Model, Lead, Test
Student(s) must respond with a predetermined level of accuracy during the test phase to consider the skill mastered prior to moving on; for example, 80% accuracy for 2 consecutive sessions.
If students make an error, a correction is provided in the form of modeling the correct response, then having the student correctly perform the step.
Model, Lead, Test is not appropriate for students who are not able to observe someone perform an action and attempt to imitate that action (e.g., students without imitation skills).
You can easily test this by observing the student performing a few behaviors/movements (e.g., raising their hand, clapping their hands, and folding their hands). The point of this step is to ensure the student is physically capable of performing the behavior.
Then, secure the student's attention and say "do this" while completing the action (e.g., clap your hands). Do NOT say "clap your hands."
If the student attempts to imitate the action (e.g., claps their hands) then model, lead, test may be appropriate teaching strategy for that student.
20. Sample Script for Model, Lead, Test (Measuring Length in Inches with Ruler)
21. Example/Non-Example Training
Most behaviors need to be performed in response to a variety of different cues, situations, and stimuli. Using example/non-example training is one way to approach teaching students the concepts in a way that will generalize to all of the different cues, situations, and stimuli where they might need it.
Teaching sufficient examples is important when teaching students to respond to all possible demonstrations of a concept.
Teaching non-examples is how you teach students when not to display the target behavior you are trying to teach. This is important to determine whether or not they truly understand a concept.
For example: If you teach a student to respond to "three" when shown the written number 3, but they also say "three" when shown the umbers 1-9. then they have not mastered the concept of 3.
Guidelines for Using Example/Non-Example Training
Most behaviors need to be performed in response to a variety of different cues, situations, and stimuli. Using example/non-example training is one way to approach teaching students the concepts in a way that will generalize to all of the different cues, situations, and stimuli where they might need it.
Teaching sufficient examples is important when teaching students to respond to all possible demonstrations of a concept.
Teaching non-examples is how you teach students when not to display the target behavior you are trying to teach. This is important to determine whether or not they truly understand a concept.
For example: If you teach a student to respond to "three" when shown the written number 3, but they also say "three" when shown the umbers 1-9. then they have not mastered the concept of 3.
Guidelines for Using Example/Non-Example Training
- Examples and non-examples should be intermixed throughout the teaching process.
- Examples should include a sufficient number of examples that encompass as many possible features of the concept so that students can generalize to untrained examples.
- Generally, generalization of the concept is more likely to successfully occur when more examples and non-examples are used during instruction.
- The actual number of examples and non-examples that need to be included vary according to the skill being taught and the needs of the individual student.
- Non-examples are not always clear enough or occur too infrequently in the natural environment for students to learn when not to display the behavior; therefore, explicitly teaching them can be helpful.
- Non-examples should be presented and taught by examining how closely they differ from the example. The most effective non-examples are close-in non-examples that have minimal differences from the actual example; this helps the student discriminate with precision.
- When teaching examples and non-examples, vary only the relevant feature during any particular session. Non-relevant features can be varied from session to session, but not within a session.
22. Sample Script for Example, Non-Example Training (Teaching Concept of <)
23. Generalization When Using Example, Non-Training
In order to promote generalization, use different objects/pictures on different days (e.g., on day two use apples, day three use cars, day four use hats, day five use star stickers). Do not vary objects within a session (e.g., if you are using apples, continue to use apples for that entire session). Use the same script as above, simply using the other objects.
In order to promote generalization, use different objects/pictures on different days (e.g., on day two use apples, day three use cars, day four use hats, day five use star stickers). Do not vary objects within a session (e.g., if you are using apples, continue to use apples for that entire session). Use the same script as above, simply using the other objects.
Once the student masters greater than in the above format now introduce new formats. These include greater than with volume and greater than with numbers.
Once the student masters greater than in the above format, now introduce the symbol (>). Teach students to identify the amount that is greater and turn the opening of the symbol to the greater than amount. Only after the student has fully mastered the concept of greater, then introduce the concept of less than (e.g., do not teach opposing concepts simultaneously). Use the same procedures as above (less than, not less than) to teach less than; however, if you are showing students a trial of "not less than" you should accept a response of either "not less than" or "greater."
24. Sample Script for Example, Non-Example Training (Teaching Setting)
25. References
Browder, D. M., & Spooner, F. (2011). Teaching students with moderate and severe disabilities (1st ed.). The Guilford Press.
Collins, B. C. (Ed.). (2007). Moderate and severe disabilities: A foundational approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Coyne, M. D., Kame'enui, E. J., & Carnine, D. W. (2011). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (4th ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Engelmann, S., & Carnine, D. (1991). Theory of instruction: Principles and applications. Eugene, OR: ADI Press.
Herrera, A. N., Bruno, A., Gonzalez, C., Moreno, L., & Sanabria, H. (2011). Addition and subtraction by students with down syndrome. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 42, 13-35.
Jimenez, B. A., Browder, D. M., & Courtade, G. R. (2009). An exploratory study of self-directed science concept learning by students with moderate intellectual disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 34, 33-46.
Mims, P. J., Hudson, M. E., & Browder, D. M. (2012). Using read-alouds of grade-level biographies and systematic prompting to promote comprehension for students with moderate and severe developmental disabilities. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 27, 67-80.
Przychodzin, A. M., Marchand-Martella, N. E., Martella, R. C., & Azim, D. (2004). Direct instruction mathematics programs: An overview and research summary. Journal of Direct Instruction, 4, 53-84.
Skibo, H., Mims, P., & Spooner, F. (2011). Teaching number identification to students with severe disabilities using response cards. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 124-133.
Stein, M., Kinder, D., Silbert, J., & Carnine, D. W. (2005). Designing effective mathematics instruction: A direct instruction approach (4th ed.). Prentice Hall.
Browder, D. M., & Spooner, F. (2011). Teaching students with moderate and severe disabilities (1st ed.). The Guilford Press.
Collins, B. C. (Ed.). (2007). Moderate and severe disabilities: A foundational approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Coyne, M. D., Kame'enui, E. J., & Carnine, D. W. (2011). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners (4th ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Engelmann, S., & Carnine, D. (1991). Theory of instruction: Principles and applications. Eugene, OR: ADI Press.
Herrera, A. N., Bruno, A., Gonzalez, C., Moreno, L., & Sanabria, H. (2011). Addition and subtraction by students with down syndrome. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 42, 13-35.
Jimenez, B. A., Browder, D. M., & Courtade, G. R. (2009). An exploratory study of self-directed science concept learning by students with moderate intellectual disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 34, 33-46.
Mims, P. J., Hudson, M. E., & Browder, D. M. (2012). Using read-alouds of grade-level biographies and systematic prompting to promote comprehension for students with moderate and severe developmental disabilities. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 27, 67-80.
Przychodzin, A. M., Marchand-Martella, N. E., Martella, R. C., & Azim, D. (2004). Direct instruction mathematics programs: An overview and research summary. Journal of Direct Instruction, 4, 53-84.
Skibo, H., Mims, P., & Spooner, F. (2011). Teaching number identification to students with severe disabilities using response cards. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 124-133.
Stein, M., Kinder, D., Silbert, J., & Carnine, D. W. (2005). Designing effective mathematics instruction: A direct instruction approach (4th ed.). Prentice Hall.
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However, the contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education and no assumption of endorsement by the Federal government should be made.
However, the contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education and no assumption of endorsement by the Federal government should be made.